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Title: The exposure to violence questionnaire in adolescents: psychometrics and associations with well-being
Author: Pedras, Susana
Moreira, Paulo
Ramanlho, Sofia
Inman, Richard A.
Faria, Sara
Araújo, Marta
Keywords: Exposure to violence
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Springer
Citation: Pedras, S., A.S. Moreira, P., Ramalho, S. et al. (2021). The exposure to violence questionnaire in adolescents: psychometrics and associations with well-being. J Child Fam Stud 30, 633–649.
Abstract: Exposure to violence can have strong detrimental effects on adolescents, including long-term negative consequences for development, adjustment, and functionality. This study tests the factorial structure, psychometric properties, and construct validity of a Portuguese version of the Exposure to Violence Scale (EVS); a measure of adolescents’ direct and indirect exposure to violence at school, in their community, at home, and on TV. The study sample comprised 306 Portuguese adolescents, 53.9% of whom were boys (Mage= 13 years, SD = 1.6), from the 6th to 10th grades. These adolescents completed the EVS, a measure of positive and negative affect, and a measure of perceived quality of life. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test structural validity. This analysis indicated that a seven correlated factors model the data well. Cronbach’s alpha values indicated the sub-scales were reliable. T-tests indicated that older adolescents typically reported greater exposure to violence than younger adolescents, and that boys experienced more direct violence at school and home, and indirect violence in the community, than girls did. Finally, positive correlations with negative affect, and negative correlations with positive affect and well-being, offered evidence of convergent validity. The EVS for Portuguese adolescents has adequate psychometric properties for use as a brief screening tool for assessing the various forms and contexts of exposure to violence in adolescents. Having this validated instrument for use in Portugal has important clinical implications for teachers, health professionals, and teachers.
Description: No funding was received for conducting this study. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Centro de Investigação em Psicologia para o Desenvolvimento (CIPD) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. Informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Paulo A. S. Moreira, Centro de Investigação em Psicologia para o Desenvolvimento (CIPD), Rua de Moçambique 21 e 71, Porto 4100-348, Portugal. Email:
This version of the article has been accepted for publication, after peer review (when applicable) and is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
Peer reviewed: yes
ISSN: 1573-2843
Document Type: Article
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