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Title: Assessing the unidimensionality of Clayton’s Environmental Identity Scale using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Bifactor Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (bifactor-ESEM)
Author: Moreira, Paulo
Loureiro, Ana
Inman, Richard A.
Olivos-Jara, Pablo
Keywords: Unidimensional
Bifactor model
Psychometric properties
Environmental identity
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: University of California Press
Citation: Moreira, P., Loureiro, A., Inman, R., & Olivos-Jara, P. (2021). Assessing the Unidimensionality of Clayton’s Environmental Identity Scale Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Bifactor Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (bifactor-ESEM). Collabra: Psychology, 7(1).
Abstract: A relevant intrapersonal characteristic for understanding intentions and behavior toward environmental sustainability is the degree to which nature is important for a person’s self-definition. Clayton’s Environmental Identity (EID) scale purports to measure this construct. However, a limited number of prior exploratory studies of this measure have supported different factor structures. Hence, our initial aim was to develop an understanding of the dimensionality of Clayton’s 24-item EID scale by testing competing latent structures using confirmatory factor analysis. We analyzed self-reported data from 458 adults (Mage = 26.7 years; 81% female). Four a priori models (a first-order model, a second-order model, a unidimensional model, and a bifactor model) did not show satisfactory fit to the data. An ancillary analysis using bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (bifactor-ESEM) indicated a bifactor model with three specific factors had a good fit to the data. The factor loadings of this model and values for bifactor indices (Omega Hierarchical and Explained Common Variance [ECV]) indicated a single mean score across all EID scale items taps into an essentially unidimensional construct and is therefore appropriate to interpret. In sum, our study provides a critical insight into the dimensionality of Clayton’s EID scale that will be valuable when applying this measure for research and intervention purposes.
Description: Researche article available on the publisher's website <> Collections: Section: Social Psychology
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Prof. Paulo Moreira, Instituto de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação, Universidade Lusíada, Rua de Moçambique 21 e 71, Porto 4100-348, Portugal. Email:
Peer reviewed: yes
ISSN: 2474-7394
Document Type: Article
Appears in Collections:[ILID-CIPD] Artigos

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